Helping and Understanding Seniors

Table of Contents


SECTION ONE – THE SENIOR CLIENT

Impacts of Aging
Biological Aging
Social Aging
Psychological Aging
Outward Signs of Aging
Aging Effects on Body Systems
Sensory Changes Associated With Aging
Cognitive Changes Associated With Aging
Personality Changes Associated With Aging
Basic Needs of Seniors
Physiological Needs
Safety Needs
Need for Love, Affection and Belonging
Need for Esteem
Need for Self-Actualization
Factors Affecting Seniors’ Mental Health
Insufficient or Inadequate Socialization
How Home Care Assistants Can Assist A Client Who Is Socially Isolated
How Home Care Assistants Can Assist A Client Who Is Functionally Declining
Substance Abuse
Actions Home Care Assistant Should Take If Substance Is Suspected
Changes in Circumstances
How Home Care Assistants Can Assist Clients During Changes In Life Situations
Monetary Issues
How Home Care Assistants Can Support Clients Who Have Financial Insecurities
Depression
How Home Care Assistants Can Support Depressed Clients
Summary


SECTION TWO – COMMON HEALTH PROBLEMS IN SENIORS

Chronic Diseases
Arthritis
Osteoarthritis
Rheumatoid Arthritis
How Home Care Assistants Can Help Clients With Arthritis
Osteoporosis
How Home Care Assistants Can Help Clients With Osteoporosis
Stroke
Parkinson’s Disease
How Home Care Assistants Can Help Clients With Parkinson’s Disease
Diabetes
Things Home Care Assistants Should Know About Diabetic Emergencies
Cardiovascular Diseases
How Home Care Assistants Can Help Seniors With Cardiovascular Disease
Signs and Symptoms of a Heart Attack
Anemia
How Home Care Assistants Can Help Clients, Who Are Anemic
Respiratory Conditions
Pneumonia
How Home Care Assistants Can Help Seniors Avoid Pneumonia
Things a Home Care Assistant Should Know When Working Around Oxygen
Paralysis
How Home Care Assistants Can Help Seniors With Paralysis
Cancer
How Home Care Assistants Should Interact With Clients Who Are Battling Cancer
Eye Problems
How Home Care Assistants Can Help Seniors With Vision Problems
Ear Problems
How Home Care Assistants Can Help Seniors With Hearing Problems
Common Health Care Mistakes Made by Seniors
Summary


SECTION THREE – CONFUSION and DEMENTIAS IN SENIORS

Cognitive Powers
Nervous System Changes Due to Aging
Confusion
Acute Confusion (Delirium)
Chronic Confusion (Dementia)
How Home Care Assistants Can Care for Confused Seniors
Alzheimer’s Disease
Behavioral Patterns Found in Alzheimer’s Disease
Caring for Seniors With Alzheimer’s Disease and Other Dementias
Summary


SECTION FOUR – COMMUNICATING WITH SENIORS

The Value of Communication
Communication Methods
Communication Channels for Seniors
Effective Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication
Tips and Techniques for Effective Communication
Tips and Techniques for Effective Listening
Barriers to Effective Communication
Communicating With Impaired Seniors
Communicating With Seniors Who Are Visually Impaired
Communicating With Seniors Who Are Hearing Impaired
Communicating with Seniors Who Are Aphasic
Communicating With Seniors With Dementias
Communicating With Members of the Care Team
Summary


SECTION FIVE – WORKING WITH SENIORS WHO HAVE DISABILITIES

Introduction
Disability Categories
Physical Disabilities
Psychiatric Disabilities (Mental Illness)
Intellectual (Learning) Disabilities
Neurological Disabilities
Sensory Disabilities
Brain Injury Disabilities
Acquired and Developmental Disabilities
Etiquette For Interacting With People Who Have Disabilities
How to Address or Describe People with Disabilities
Summary


SECTION SIX – CARING FOR TERMINALLY ILL SENIORS

Terminal Illness
The Positive Side of Terminal Illness
The Process of Dying
The Dying Person’s Rights
Things A Person Should Consider When Facing A Terminal Illness
Living Wills
Durable Power of Attorney
Do Not Resuscitate (DNR) Orders
Hospice Care
Funeral and Disposal of Remains
Needs of People Who Have A Terminal Illness
How Home Care Assistants Can Help Clients With A Terminal Illness
Physical Needs of People Who Have a Terminal Illness
Psychological Needs of People Who Have a Terminal Illness
How Home Care Assistants Can Help Dying People Meet Their Psychological Needs
Social Needs of People Who Have a Terminal Illness
How Home Care Assistants Can Help Dying People Meet Their Socialization Needs
Spiritual Needs of People Who Have a Terminal Illness
How Home Care Assistants Can Help The Terminally Ill Handle Their Spiritual Needs
Challenges that People With a Terminal Illness Face
Grief Issues that People With a Terminal Illness Face
How Home Care Assistants Can Help The Terminally Ill Cope With Grief
Loneliness Issues that People With a Terminal Illness Face
How Home Care Assistants Can Help The Terminally Ill Cope With Loneliness
Anxiety Issues that People With a Terminal Illness Face
How Home Care Assistants Can Help The Terminally Ill Cope With Anxiety
Depression Issues that People With a Terminal Illness Face
How Home Care Assistants Can Help The Terminally Ill Cope With Depression
Anger Issues that People With a Terminal Illness Face
How Home Care Assistants Can Help The Terminally Ill Cope With Anger
Dealing With The Family of Terminally Ill People
How Home Care Assistants Can Help The Families Of The Terminally Ill
Signs that Death is Near
Summary


SECTION SEVEN – WORKING WITH DIFFICULT SENIORS

Difficult Clients
Behavioral Patterns Displayed by Difficult Clients
Identifying and Dealing with Difficult Personalities
Tips for Handling Difficult Clients
Complaints
Tips for Dealing With Complaining Clients
Steps To Take When Dealing With Complaining Clients
Example of How to Handle a Client’s Complaint
Anger
Tips for Dealing With Angry Clients
Conflict
Constructive and Destructive Aspects of Conflict
Tips andTechniques For Dealing With Conflict
Aggression
Tips for Dealing With Aggressive Clients
Violence
Tips for Defusing Violence in Clients
Negativity
Tips for Dealing with Negative Attitudes
Negotiations
Steps to Take When Negotiating With Clients
Summary


SECTION EIGHT – PROVIDING PERSONAL CARE TO SENIORS

The Meaning of Personal Care
Skills Required By A Personal Care Assistant
Grooming
Hair Care
Common Hair Conditions
Shaving
Tips and Techniques for Shaving
Oral Hygiene
The Basics for Brushing Teeth
The Basics for Denture Care
Bathing
Guidelines for Bathing
Skin Care
Skin Tears
Pressure Sores
Nail Care
Tips for Nail Care
Dressing and Undressing
Dressing Techniques
Turning
Transferring
Pivot Transfers
How to Do a Pivot Transfer
Techniques for “One-Person” Transfers
Body Mechanics
Techniques For Practicing Good Body Mechanics
Range of Motion Exercises
Key Points About Range of Motion Exercises
Walking
The Falling Client
Urinary System Care
Common Causes of Urinary Incontinence
Treatment of Urinary Incontinence
Bowel Care
Common Bowel Problems
Treatments for Common Bowel Problems
Caring for the Incontinent Client
Devices Used For Elimination and Incontinence
Eating/Feeding
Tips for Safe Feeding
Tips for Encouraging Self Care
Vital Signs
Things a Personal Care Assistant Must Never Do
Equipment and Supplies Recommended for Personal Care Assistants
Summary


SECTION NINE – MEETING THE NUTRITIONAL NEEDS OF SENIORS

Nutrition
Dietary Guidelines
Food Guide Pyramid
Food Servings
Omnivorous Diet
Carnivorous Diet
Vegetarian Diet
Raw Food Diet
Special Diets
Nutritional Needs of Seniors
Impacts of Aging on the Nutritional Health of Seniors
Warning Signs That Seniors Are Not Getting Proper Nutrition
Reasons Why Seniors Might Not Be Getting Proper Nutrition
Factors Contributing to Poor Nutrition in Seniors
Dehydration
Signs and Symptoms Of Dehydration
Dysphagia
Signs and Symptoms of Dysphagia in Seniors
Tips for Getting Seniors to Eat Properly
Factors Which Influence Nutrition in Seniors
Examples of Cultural Food Choices
Summary


SECTION TEN – HEALTH and SAFETY

Precautions to Take for Personal Safety
Assessing the Home Environment for Hazards
Safety Precautions and Minimizing Risks to the Senior Client
How Home Care Assistants Can Assist Seniors To Minimize Safety Risks
Falls and Fractures
Causes and Preventions of Falls
Infectious Diseases
How Home Care Assistants Can Offset the Spread of Infectious Diseases
Injuries
How Home Care Assistants Can Protect Themselves from Injury
Wellness
Stresses Home Care Assistants Face
How Home Care Assistants Can Promote Wellness
Emergency Preparedness
Things That Can Be Done Before A Fire Erupts
What To Do In The Event Of A House Fire
Flood
What to Do When a Flood Warning is Issued
What to Do During a Flood
Safety Practices to Follow During a Flood
Earthquake
What To Do During An Earthquake
What To Do After an Earthquake
Hurricane
What To Do If A Hurricane Warning is Issued
Tornado
What to Do During a Tornado
Power Outages
Electrocution
Summary


SECTION ELEVEN – BASICS OF EMERGENCY CARE

Objectives of Emergency Care
General Rules of Emergency Care
The ABCs of Assessing a Person’s Condition
Breathing Emergencies
Artificial Respiration
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)
Emergency Care for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation
Choking
Emergency Care for Choking
Hemorrhage
Emergency Care for Hemorrhaging
Heart Attack
Emergency Care for Heart Attacks
Stroke
Emergency Care for Strokes
The Recovery Position
Burns
Emergency Care for Burns
Things Not To Do When Providing Care For Burns
Electrocution
Emergency Care for Electrocution
Fainting
Emergency Care for Fainting
Shock
Emergency Care for Shock
Diabetic Emergencies
Emergency Care for Diabetic Conditions
Seizures
Emergency Care for Major Seizures
Heat Exposure
Emergency Care for Heat Exhaustion
Emergency Care for Heat Stroke
Cold Exposure
Emergency Care for Cold Exposure
Asthma
Emergency Care for Severe Asthma Attack
Common Psychological Conditions
Emergency Care for Common Psychological Conditions
Summary


SECTION TWELVE – INFECTION CONTROL

Infections
Types of Infections
Signs and Symptoms of Infection
Transmission of Infections
Infection Diseases
Bloodborne Diseases
The Role of the Home Care Assistant in Infection Control
The Role Cleansing Plays in Infection Control
Using Universal Precautions to Control Infections
H and washing
Disposable Gloves
Gowns and Aprons
Masks and Protective Goggles
Sharp Objects
Handling Specimens
Blood Sugar Level Tests
Handling Household Waste
Procedures for Handling Wastes
Handling Laundry
Handling Equipment
Procedures for Handling Personal Care Items and Special Equipment
Catheters and Drainage Bags
Procedures for Cleaning a Catheter
Procedures for Emptying the Drainage Bag
Procedures for Cleaning the Emptied Drainage Bag
Summary